Sunday, September 9, 2018

What is genetic engineering ?

What is genetic engineering? 

The basic principles of genetic engineering were developed barely a decade ago, and since then there has been astounding progress which had provided us with a set of tools of quite remarkable power and sophistication. In short, genetic engineering involves inserting new genetic information into an orgasm -usually a bacterium-to endow it with novel capabilities. It does not follow a single fixed set of procedures. The choice of method of depends on which gene is to be transferred and what type of orgasm is to receive the new genetic information. The choice even depends to some extent on the personal preferences of the scientists involved.

The biotechnological applications of genetic engineering consist of the following three main stages: 

obtaining the gene which codes for the product the microbial factory is to manufacture.

inserting the gene into the microbes.

Inducing the microbes to start synthesising the foreign product; and collecting that product.

Like other branches of engineering, genetic engineering takes materials available in nature, uses specialized knowledge and tools to modify them in particular ways, and assembles the pieces to yield the final structure.
Genetic engineering are faced with problems arising from the fact that generally they cannot see the materials they are manipulating. Today's immensely powerful microscopes can provide a lot if detail about the shape and structure of microbes, but provide little information about the parts of the cell that are of central concern to genetic engineers DNA  and protein molecules. Ahuman cell contain thousands of genes, each of which is the blueprint for manufacturing a protein, but even with the finest microscopes it is not possible to distinguish one gene from another. Thus, many of the subtlest tricks of genetic engineers are designed to reveal in other ways just what is going on inside the world of microbes, and what effects their manipulations are laboratory.